Flag
義大利語
篩選條件
全部清除
篩選條件
Flag
義大利語
可授課時間
來自
老師所說語言
價格
口說練習

口說練習 - 義大利語家教和老師

精選
Profile Picture
$25
USD/小時
security_checked
5.0
$25
USD/小時
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
567
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
西班牙語
母語
,
英語
C2
,
德語
A2
,
法語
A1
I was preparing a lesson for a student of mine, when I found myself struggling with a translation. The word was “cavare”. «Pull out» I thought. But then… was there a better word? “Cavare”, in Italian, doesn’t only mean “to pull out”, that would be “estrarre”, “tirar fuori”, “rimuovere” or something else. “Cavare” has the word “cavità” (cavity) in it. “Cavare” means “to extract from a cavity”, “to remove and leave a cavity” and I couldn’t find a single word in English that suited the perfect meaning. This happens to me all the time, as I speak three languages daily and I am a “word perfectionist”: I am fascinated by the meaning that every word can have, those little shades of significance that can only be understood by those who profoundly study a language. And that is what I do: I study, all the time, to speak each of my three languages at its best, and I teach, to make my students learn properly the meaning of words and their best combination. My name is Cindy and I am a language tutor and writing coach. With me you will be learning Italian in the way I believe to be the most efficient of all: through speaking, reading and writing. During my lessons, you will, most of all, speak and read. I will correct your pronunciation, make it perfect, as I am studying “dizione” (Italian diction) and I have no dialectal inflections, no regional slang. I will give you, if needed, detailed grammar notions and tricks in order to understand the most common mistakes and avoid them forever. Then, the coaching will come. I will give you homework (only, of course, if you agree), which mainly consist in writing small texts on a given subject. I will correct them meticulously outside the lesson time, giving you all the tools you need to better your writing and, therefore, your speaking. Writing is a very effective way to fix not only the spelling, but also the best sentence structure and all the grammar notions: that’s why I really recommend my students to write. Speak. Read. Write. That’s it. *** You find all relevant information about my studies and my job experience in my profile. I am also writing a FAQs section you will find below, but, please, feel free to write me if you need to know more or if you just want to chat with me before booking a lesson!
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
567
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
西班牙語
母語
,
英語
C2
,
德語
A2
,
法語
A1
I was preparing a lesson for a student of mine, when I found myself struggling with a translation. The word was “cavare”. «Pull out» I thought. But then… was there a better word? “Cavare”, in Italian, doesn’t only mean “to pull out”, that would be “estrarre”, “tirar fuori”, “rimuovere” or something else. “Cavare” has the word “cavità” (cavity) in it. “Cavare” means “to extract from a cavity”, “to remove and leave a cavity” and I couldn’t find a single word in English that suited the perfect meaning. This happens to me all the time, as I speak three languages daily and I am a “word perfectionist”: I am fascinated by the meaning that every word can have, those little shades of significance that can only be understood by those who profoundly study a language. And that is what I do: I study, all the time, to speak each of my three languages at its best, and I teach, to make my students learn properly the meaning of words and their best combination. My name is Cindy and I am a language tutor and writing coach. With me you will be learning Italian in the way I believe to be the most efficient of all: through speaking, reading and writing. During my lessons, you will, most of all, speak and read. I will correct your pronunciation, make it perfect, as I am studying “dizione” (Italian diction) and I have no dialectal inflections, no regional slang. I will give you, if needed, detailed grammar notions and tricks in order to understand the most common mistakes and avoid them forever. Then, the coaching will come. I will give you homework (only, of course, if you agree), which mainly consist in writing small texts on a given subject. I will correct them meticulously outside the lesson time, giving you all the tools you need to better your writing and, therefore, your speaking. Writing is a very effective way to fix not only the spelling, but also the best sentence structure and all the grammar notions: that’s why I really recommend my students to write. Speak. Read. Write. That’s it. *** You find all relevant information about my studies and my job experience in my profile. I am also writing a FAQs section you will find below, but, please, feel free to write me if you need to know more or if you just want to chat with me before booking a lesson!
精選
Profile Picture
$19
USD/小時
security_checked
5.0
$19
USD/小時
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
1 086
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
英語
C2
,
西班牙語
A2
,
俄語
A1
Ciao! I am Italian from Reggio Calabria : A lovely city in southern Italy! I'm a teacher of Italian language since 2014. If you want to learn Italian, I will be very happy to help you! I have got a certificate as " Teacher of Italian Language for foreigners " from the University of Dante Alighieri in Reggio Calabria. I have been teaching Italian since 2014. I teach students of all levels, from A1 until C2. I also prepare students to International exams such as PLIDA and CILS. In our first lesson, I would like to know YOUR goals and aims, in order we work to reach them together, I will prepare a specific and individual program JUST FOR YOU!! My lessons are enjoyable, because we will not just discuss language and grammar, but also cultural sides and curious stuff as well. In the lessons you will also watch movies and listen to songs in order to practice what you have learnt. I believe practice is the right way in order to learn a language, so you will start practicing, practicing and practicing from the first lesson, in order you can feel your improvements day after day! I have studied several languages such as : English, Spanish, Arabic and Russian. Therefore, I know the difficulties that students may face when they study a new language. I can teach adults and children as well. I am Italian mother tongue and I also speak English and Arabic fluently. I hope to see you soon in a lesson. A presto!
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
1 086
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
英語
C2
,
西班牙語
A2
,
俄語
A1
Ciao! I am Italian from Reggio Calabria : A lovely city in southern Italy! I'm a teacher of Italian language since 2014. If you want to learn Italian, I will be very happy to help you! I have got a certificate as " Teacher of Italian Language for foreigners " from the University of Dante Alighieri in Reggio Calabria. I have been teaching Italian since 2014. I teach students of all levels, from A1 until C2. I also prepare students to International exams such as PLIDA and CILS. In our first lesson, I would like to know YOUR goals and aims, in order we work to reach them together, I will prepare a specific and individual program JUST FOR YOU!! My lessons are enjoyable, because we will not just discuss language and grammar, but also cultural sides and curious stuff as well. In the lessons you will also watch movies and listen to songs in order to practice what you have learnt. I believe practice is the right way in order to learn a language, so you will start practicing, practicing and practicing from the first lesson, in order you can feel your improvements day after day! I have studied several languages such as : English, Spanish, Arabic and Russian. Therefore, I know the difficulties that students may face when they study a new language. I can teach adults and children as well. I am Italian mother tongue and I also speak English and Arabic fluently. I hope to see you soon in a lesson. A presto!
calendar_plus

更新可授課時間

告訴我們您有空的時段,我們會找到符合您需求的老師。
Profile Picture
$15
USD/小時
security_checked
5.0
$15
USD/小時
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
1 918
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
西班牙語
C1
,
英語
B2
,
法語
A1
Hello my name is Ettore and I was born in the beautiful Florence, in Italy. I love teaching! I like to share my knowledge with people who need it and, at the same time, learning from everybody. This is the meaning of life! I have a master's degree in teaching at the Giovanni Pascoli School. I have been teaching Italian for many years to foreigners in Florence, working for a voluntary association, and also at the UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana) in Mexico city and Aguascalientes, Mexico. In 2017 and 2018 I taught Italian in Australia. I have shaped my teaching over time by having to teach to people from 5 to 70 in many different situations, face to face, online, in schools, in neighbourhoods, in villages, in associations, even in different kind of churches and recreational clubs, using the most effective teaching approach based on the situation. Right now I am in Thailand, where I keep going to teach on different online platforms where I also teach photography and video shooting, my second and third passion. I speak fluent Spanish thanks to my experience in Mexico, and I also speak an intermediate English. My teaching method is Nuovo Progetto Italiano. I will supply to you with all the teaching material step by step as we will progress through the program. Together we will learn Italian according to your interests, needs, and goals, sharing moreover with you everything you are interested to know about our culture and our history! Any questions just ask! Here are my social channels: Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_uUd6FGQ910hEUru2RxNew Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/italianofacile.social/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/italianofacile.social/ ____________ ITA Ciao mi chiamo Ettore e sono nato nella bellissima Firenze, in Italia. Adoro insegnare! Mi piace condividere le mie conoscenze con le persone che ne hanno bisogno e, allo stesso tempo, imparare da tutti. Questo è il senso della vita! Mi sono diplomato in insegnamento presso la Scuola Giovanni Pascoli. Ho insegnato italiano per molti anni a stranieri a Firenze, lavorando per un'associazione di volontariato, e anche all'UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana) a Città del Messico e ad Aguascalientes, in Messico. Nel 2017 e nel 2018 ho insegnato italiano in Australia. Ho modellato il mio insegnamento nel tempo insegnando a persone dai 5 ai 70 anni in molte situazioni diverse, faccia a faccia, online, nelle scuole, nei quartieri, nei villaggi, nelle associazioni, anche in diversi tipi di chiese e club ricreativi, utilizzando l'approccio didattico più efficace in base alla situazione che mi si presentava. In questo momento sono in Tailandia e continuo ad insegnare su diverse piattaforme online, dove insegno anche fotografia e riprese video, la mia seconda e terza passione. Parlo fluentemente spagnolo grazie alla mia esperienza in Messico, e parlo anche un inglese intermedio. Il mio metodo di insegnamento è quello di Nuovo Progetto Italiano. Ti fornirò tutto il materiale didattico a mano a mano che progrediremo nel programma. Insieme impareremo l'Italiano in base ai tuoi interessi, bisogni ed obiettivi, condividendo inoltre tutto ciò che ti interessa sapere della nostra cultura e della nostra storia! Se hai qualche domanda, chiedi pure! Qui puoi visitare i miei canali social: Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_uUd6FGQ910hEUru2RxNew Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/italianofacile.social/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/italianofacile.social/ _____________ ESP Hola, mi nombre es Ettore y nací en la hermosa Florencia, en Italia. ¡Me encanta enseñar! Me gusta compartir mi conocimiento con las personas que lo necesitan y, al mismo tiempo, aprender desde todos. ¡Este es el significado de la vida! Me gradué en la enseñanza en la Escuela Giovanni Pascoli. Durante muchos años enseñé italiano a extranjeros en Florencia, trabajando para una asociación voluntaria, y también en la UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana) en la Ciudad de México y Aguascalientes, en México. En 2017 y 2018 enseñé italiano en Australia. Con el tiempo he moldeado mi método de enseñanza trabajando con personas de 5 a 70 años en muchas situaciones distintas, cara a cara, en línea, en escuelas, vecindarios, aldeas, asociaciones, incluso en diferentes tipos de iglesias y clubes recreativos, utilizando el enfoque más efectivo basado en la situación que me iba a enfrentar. Ahora mismo estoy en Tailandia y sigo enseñando en distintas plataformas online, donde también enseño fotografía y toma de video, mi segunda y tercera pasión. Hablo español gracias a mi experiencia en México, y también hablo inglés a nivel intermedio. Mi método de enseñanza es el de Nuovo Progetto Italiano. Te proporcionaré todo el material de enseñanza a medida que avanzamos con el programa. ¡Juntos aprenderemos Italiano según sus intereses, necesidades y objetivos, compartiendo todo lo que le interese saber sobre nuestra cultura y nuestra historia!
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
1 918
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
西班牙語
C1
,
英語
B2
,
法語
A1
Hello my name is Ettore and I was born in the beautiful Florence, in Italy. I love teaching! I like to share my knowledge with people who need it and, at the same time, learning from everybody. This is the meaning of life! I have a master's degree in teaching at the Giovanni Pascoli School. I have been teaching Italian for many years to foreigners in Florence, working for a voluntary association, and also at the UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana) in Mexico city and Aguascalientes, Mexico. In 2017 and 2018 I taught Italian in Australia. I have shaped my teaching over time by having to teach to people from 5 to 70 in many different situations, face to face, online, in schools, in neighbourhoods, in villages, in associations, even in different kind of churches and recreational clubs, using the most effective teaching approach based on the situation. Right now I am in Thailand, where I keep going to teach on different online platforms where I also teach photography and video shooting, my second and third passion. I speak fluent Spanish thanks to my experience in Mexico, and I also speak an intermediate English. My teaching method is Nuovo Progetto Italiano. I will supply to you with all the teaching material step by step as we will progress through the program. Together we will learn Italian according to your interests, needs, and goals, sharing moreover with you everything you are interested to know about our culture and our history! Any questions just ask! Here are my social channels: Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_uUd6FGQ910hEUru2RxNew Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/italianofacile.social/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/italianofacile.social/ ____________ ITA Ciao mi chiamo Ettore e sono nato nella bellissima Firenze, in Italia. Adoro insegnare! Mi piace condividere le mie conoscenze con le persone che ne hanno bisogno e, allo stesso tempo, imparare da tutti. Questo è il senso della vita! Mi sono diplomato in insegnamento presso la Scuola Giovanni Pascoli. Ho insegnato italiano per molti anni a stranieri a Firenze, lavorando per un'associazione di volontariato, e anche all'UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana) a Città del Messico e ad Aguascalientes, in Messico. Nel 2017 e nel 2018 ho insegnato italiano in Australia. Ho modellato il mio insegnamento nel tempo insegnando a persone dai 5 ai 70 anni in molte situazioni diverse, faccia a faccia, online, nelle scuole, nei quartieri, nei villaggi, nelle associazioni, anche in diversi tipi di chiese e club ricreativi, utilizzando l'approccio didattico più efficace in base alla situazione che mi si presentava. In questo momento sono in Tailandia e continuo ad insegnare su diverse piattaforme online, dove insegno anche fotografia e riprese video, la mia seconda e terza passione. Parlo fluentemente spagnolo grazie alla mia esperienza in Messico, e parlo anche un inglese intermedio. Il mio metodo di insegnamento è quello di Nuovo Progetto Italiano. Ti fornirò tutto il materiale didattico a mano a mano che progrediremo nel programma. Insieme impareremo l'Italiano in base ai tuoi interessi, bisogni ed obiettivi, condividendo inoltre tutto ciò che ti interessa sapere della nostra cultura e della nostra storia! Se hai qualche domanda, chiedi pure! Qui puoi visitare i miei canali social: Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_uUd6FGQ910hEUru2RxNew Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/italianofacile.social/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/italianofacile.social/ _____________ ESP Hola, mi nombre es Ettore y nací en la hermosa Florencia, en Italia. ¡Me encanta enseñar! Me gusta compartir mi conocimiento con las personas que lo necesitan y, al mismo tiempo, aprender desde todos. ¡Este es el significado de la vida! Me gradué en la enseñanza en la Escuela Giovanni Pascoli. Durante muchos años enseñé italiano a extranjeros en Florencia, trabajando para una asociación voluntaria, y también en la UAM (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana) en la Ciudad de México y Aguascalientes, en México. En 2017 y 2018 enseñé italiano en Australia. Con el tiempo he moldeado mi método de enseñanza trabajando con personas de 5 a 70 años en muchas situaciones distintas, cara a cara, en línea, en escuelas, vecindarios, aldeas, asociaciones, incluso en diferentes tipos de iglesias y clubes recreativos, utilizando el enfoque más efectivo basado en la situación que me iba a enfrentar. Ahora mismo estoy en Tailandia y sigo enseñando en distintas plataformas online, donde también enseño fotografía y toma de video, mi segunda y tercera pasión. Hablo español gracias a mi experiencia en México, y también hablo inglés a nivel intermedio. Mi método de enseñanza es el de Nuovo Progetto Italiano. Te proporcionaré todo el material de enseñanza a medida que avanzamos con el programa. ¡Juntos aprenderemos Italiano según sus intereses, necesidades y objetivos, compartiendo todo lo que le interese saber sobre nuestra cultura y nuestra historia!
Profile Picture
$17
USD/小時
security_checked
5.0
$17
USD/小時
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
1 766
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
西班牙語
C1
,
英語
C1
Hi! My name is Martina and I'm a qualified and experienced Italian teacher. I am cheerful and very patient and I strive to make my classes as enjoyable and engaging as possible, because I believe that it's easier to learn if you're relaxed and having a good time. After we've covered the topic at hand, I consistently make sure that we put it into actual practice by active speaking and other applied tasks. I always provide LEARNING RESOURCES and WRITTEN MATERIALS that you can keep for future reference. If you want to learn from scratch I will guide you step by step, with a progression of classes that will make you able to understand and speak with ease in everyday-situations. If you already know some Italian and want to take it to the next level I'll help you progress designing classes around what you need to improve and developing your strenghts. No matter your level, we can build on that. I'll tailor the contents and topics of classes based on your learning purpose. We'll deal with grammar in a communicative context, to look at how it works in real life situations, using various resources such as texts and news articles, videos and dialogues, songs. We can choose whether to focus on conversation, writing, listening, reading or to practice all four of them, depending on your needs and goals. I can also help you with specific practical tasks such as formal writing or translating, preparing for presentations and interviews, improving your pronunciation or if you need to tackle specific subjects (grammar, vocabulary, art, language for travel...) About me: I first started when I still attended school, volunteering as a peer-tutor and I realized I was so passionate about it that I wanted to be a teacher. I call it my beloved job: this is what I love doing, but I also take it seriously and professionaly. I've been teaching different age groups and levels, from very young students to adults. I graduated in Foreign Languages and Intercultural Studies, which gave me a humanities background and formal training in teaching a foreign language, advanced linguistics, and translation. Other things I enjoy: strange movies, cats, yoga, riding my bike, and most recently learning to play the ukulele! Feel free to message me if you have any questions, I'm here to help you!
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
1 766
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
西班牙語
C1
,
英語
C1
Hi! My name is Martina and I'm a qualified and experienced Italian teacher. I am cheerful and very patient and I strive to make my classes as enjoyable and engaging as possible, because I believe that it's easier to learn if you're relaxed and having a good time. After we've covered the topic at hand, I consistently make sure that we put it into actual practice by active speaking and other applied tasks. I always provide LEARNING RESOURCES and WRITTEN MATERIALS that you can keep for future reference. If you want to learn from scratch I will guide you step by step, with a progression of classes that will make you able to understand and speak with ease in everyday-situations. If you already know some Italian and want to take it to the next level I'll help you progress designing classes around what you need to improve and developing your strenghts. No matter your level, we can build on that. I'll tailor the contents and topics of classes based on your learning purpose. We'll deal with grammar in a communicative context, to look at how it works in real life situations, using various resources such as texts and news articles, videos and dialogues, songs. We can choose whether to focus on conversation, writing, listening, reading or to practice all four of them, depending on your needs and goals. I can also help you with specific practical tasks such as formal writing or translating, preparing for presentations and interviews, improving your pronunciation or if you need to tackle specific subjects (grammar, vocabulary, art, language for travel...) About me: I first started when I still attended school, volunteering as a peer-tutor and I realized I was so passionate about it that I wanted to be a teacher. I call it my beloved job: this is what I love doing, but I also take it seriously and professionaly. I've been teaching different age groups and levels, from very young students to adults. I graduated in Foreign Languages and Intercultural Studies, which gave me a humanities background and formal training in teaching a foreign language, advanced linguistics, and translation. Other things I enjoy: strange movies, cats, yoga, riding my bike, and most recently learning to play the ukulele! Feel free to message me if you have any questions, I'm here to help you!
Profile Picture
$20
USD/小時
security_checked
5.0
$20
USD/小時
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
681
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
英語
B1
Solo conversazione / Conversation only. Ciao, sono GIACOMO di ROMA, ITALY. ENGLISH: In the past, I tutored American university students who were studying Italian in Rome. Last year, I taught more than 260 conversation lessons here on Verbling when I was waiting for surgery. (Read the good comments) Now I am able to work part time but with my free time I would like to help you to improve your conversation in Italian or Roman dialect. I am studying English and I know how important conversation is to learning. Through conversation, all of my students have become much more confident and fluent. If you would like to practice, I can help you. ITALIANO: Nel passato ho insegnato studenti Americani dell'università che studiavono Italiano a Roma. L’anno scorso, ho fatto piu di 260 lezioni conversazionali qui a Verbling mentre stavo aspettando un operazione. (Leggi i buoni commenti). Adesso posso lavorare part time e, così, con il tempo disponibile mi piacerebbe aiutarti a migliorare la tua conversazione in Italiano o dialetto Romano. Con la conversazione tutti sono diventati più fluenti ed e stata divertente imparare da me. Se vuoi praticare, posso aiutarti.
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
681
使用語言:
義大利語
母語
,
英語
B1
Solo conversazione / Conversation only. Ciao, sono GIACOMO di ROMA, ITALY. ENGLISH: In the past, I tutored American university students who were studying Italian in Rome. Last year, I taught more than 260 conversation lessons here on Verbling when I was waiting for surgery. (Read the good comments) Now I am able to work part time but with my free time I would like to help you to improve your conversation in Italian or Roman dialect. I am studying English and I know how important conversation is to learning. Through conversation, all of my students have become much more confident and fluent. If you would like to practice, I can help you. ITALIANO: Nel passato ho insegnato studenti Americani dell'università che studiavono Italiano a Roma. L’anno scorso, ho fatto piu di 260 lezioni conversazionali qui a Verbling mentre stavo aspettando un operazione. (Leggi i buoni commenti). Adesso posso lavorare part time e, così, con il tempo disponibile mi piacerebbe aiutarti a migliorare la tua conversazione in Italiano o dialetto Romano. Con la conversazione tutti sono diventati più fluenti ed e stata divertente imparare da me. Se vuoi praticare, posso aiutarti.
Profile Picture
$25
USD/小時
security_checked
5.0
$25
USD/小時
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
111
使用語言:
西班牙語
C1
,
法語
B2
,
英語
B1
I am a native Italian speaker, I was born in Naples. I have a Master Degree in French and Italian Languages, Literature & Culture from the University of Padova (Italy) and University of Grenoble (France). I had some teaching experiences in Italian and French languages in some of the most important schools and companies across Mexico. I have taught Italian at the University of Guanajuato and French language in the Tec of Monterrey (Campus Puebla) high school. I teach italian online from two years. I love traveling and meeting people from different cultures, reading and writing novels and I have a passion for world cuisine. I prefer a hybrid style because there is not one single method for everyone, I apply a specific methodology to all learners who have different objectives and learning needs. I like to encourage students to self-correct and to practice structures through both writing and conversation. I offer conversation classes, listening classes, reading classes and writing classes.
Flag
義大利語
globe
義大利
time
111
使用語言:
西班牙語
C1
,
法語
B2
,
英語
B1
I am a native Italian speaker, I was born in Naples. I have a Master Degree in French and Italian Languages, Literature & Culture from the University of Padova (Italy) and University of Grenoble (France). I had some teaching experiences in Italian and French languages in some of the most important schools and companies across Mexico. I have taught Italian at the University of Guanajuato and French language in the Tec of Monterrey (Campus Puebla) high school. I teach italian online from two years. I love traveling and meeting people from different cultures, reading and writing novels and I have a passion for world cuisine. I prefer a hybrid style because there is not one single method for everyone, I apply a specific methodology to all learners who have different objectives and learning needs. I like to encourage students to self-correct and to practice structures through both writing and conversation. I offer conversation classes, listening classes, reading classes and writing classes.
所有顯示時間均為本地時間
週日
17
週一
18
週二
19
週三
20
週四
21
週五
22
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
13:00
13:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
18:00
18:30
查看個人檔案