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음운규칙/발음 규칙 (→ease of articulation) 동화(→assimilation)

24 days ago
1. Rules of Pronunciation (Phonological rules)

1.1. 연음 Liason (받침 carry-over)
1) A 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial.
ex)
국이 → [ 구기 ] 문이 → [ 무니 ]
밥을 → [ 바블 ] 옷이 → [ 오시 ]
잎이 → [ 이피 ] 밖에 → [ 바께 ]
2) The second part of a double 받침 is carried over by the folowing syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial.
ex)
앉아요 → [ 안자요 ] 읽어요 → [ 일거요 ]
밟아요 → [ 발바요 ] 핥아요 → [ 할타요 ]
읊어요 → [ 을퍼요 ] 없어요 → [ 업서요 ]
 
1.2. 비음화 Nasalization
When a final (non-nasal) consonant is followed by a nasal initial (ㄴ,ㅁ), the non-nasal consonant absorbs the nasality, keeping its place of articulation. Remember, 'ㅇ' in the initial position is not a nasal consonant but a zero.
ㄱ, ㅋ → ㅇ
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ → ㄴ / before ㄴ or ㅁ
ㅂ, ㅍ → ㅁ
ex)
갑니다 → [ 감니다 ] 낱말 → [ 난말 ] 먹는다 → [ 멍는다 ]
1.3. 격음화 Aspiration
When ㅎ [h] is adjacent, a consonant is influenced and aspirated.
ㄱ → ㅋ
ㄷ → ㅌ / before or after ㅎ
ㅂ → ㅍ
ㅈ → ㅊ
ex)
좋다 → [ 조타 ] 노랗다 → [ 노라타 ]
생각하다 → [ 생가카다 ] 입히다 → [ 이피다 ]
1.4. 구개음화 Palatalization
When ㄷ or ㅌ is followed by 이 [i], a paplatalization occurs.
ㄷ[t] → ㅈ [ch]
ㅌ[t`] → ㅊ [ch`] / before 이
ex)
미닫이→ [ 미다지 ] 굳이 → [ 구지 ] 같이 → [ 가치 ]
 
1.5. 유음화(流音化) Liquidization
ㄴ → ㄹ /before another ㄹ
ex)
전라북도 → [ 절라북도 ] 신라 → [ 실라 ]

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