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Phonological notes (Korean)

a month ago
Phonological notes
1. Syllable-final Consonants (받침):
1) Theoretically, any consonant can be in the 받침 (syllable final) position. In reality, ㄸ, ㅉ, and ㅃ are not used as 받침.
2) Some of the consonants merge into one sound when they are in the syllable-final position.
Orthographically, however, they remain different. Summarized as follows:
consonant endings 받침 sound examples
ㄱ, ㅋ [k] 각, 부엌
ㄴ [n] 눈
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ [t] 낟, 낫, 낮, 낯, 낱, 낳 all pronounced as [
낟]
ㄹ [l] 쌀
ㅁ [m] 봄
ㅂ, ㅍ [p] 입, 잎 both pronounced as [입]
ㅇ [ng] 영
3) These merged sounds regain their original values when they are followed by a zero-initial syllable
(i.e. vowel).
각 + 이 (topic/subject marker) = [가기 kagi]
부엌 + 에 (place marker) = [부어케 puo^k`e]
낮 + 에 (temporal marker) = [나제 naje]
낯 + 에 (place marker) = [나체 nach`e]
입 + 이 (top./sub. marker) = [이비 ibi]
잎 + 이 (top./sub. marker) = [이피 ip`i]
2. Rules of Pronunciation
2.1. Liaison (받침 carry-over)
1) A 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial.
eg)
국이 → [ 구기 ] 문이 → [ 무니 ]
밥을 → [ 바블 ] 옷이 → [ 오시 ]
잎이 → [ 이피 ] 밖에 → [ 바께 ]
2) The second part of a double 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-syllable.
eg)
앉아요 → [ 안자요 ] 읽어요 → [ 일거요 ]
밟아요 → [ 발바요 ] 핥아요 → [ 할타요 ]
읊어요 → [ 을퍼요 ] 없어요 → [ 업서요 ]
2.2. Nasalization
When a final (non-nasal) consonant is followed by a nasal initial (ㄴ,ㅁ), the non-nasal consonant absorbs the nasality, keeping its place of articulation. Remember, 'ㅇ' in the initial position is not a nasal consonant but a zero.
ㄱ, ㅋ → ㅇ
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ, ㅎ → ㄴ / before ㄴ or ㅁ
ㅂ, ㅍ → ㅁ
eg)
갑니다 → [ 감니다 ] 낱말 → [ 난말 ] 먹는다 → [ 멍는다 ]
2.3. Aspiration
When ㅎ [h] is adjacent, a consonant is influenced and aspirated.
ㄱ → ㅋ
ㄷ → ㅌ / before or after ㅎ
ㅂ → ㅍ
ㅈ → ㅊ
eg)
좋다 → [ 조타 ] 노랗다 → [ 노라타 ]
생각하다 → [ 생가카다 ] 입히다 → [ 이피다 ]
2.4. Palatalization
When ㄷ or ㅌ is followed by 이 [i], a palatalization occurs.
ㄷ[t] → ㅈ [ch]
ㅌ[t`] → ㅊ [ch`] / before 이
eg)
미닫이→ [ 미다지 ] 굳이 → [ 구지 ] 같이 → [ 가치 ]
2.5. Liquidization
ㄴ → ㄹ /before another ㄹ
eg)
전라북도 → [ 절라북도 ] 신라 → [ 실라 ]