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predicate vs predicative

2 years ago
Russian books on English grammar use such terms as predicate and predicative.
He is a teacher; is a teacher - predicate; teacher - predicative.

I wonder why English books keep calling Subject a Subject (not a noun), but they call Predicate a verb. They are from different categories.
If so, what would you call those words in bold below that are called predicatives in Russian books on English grammar

What can function as a predicative?
Gerund
His hobby is collecting modern pictures.
The main thing is getting there in time.
Noun in the common case, occasionally a noun in the possessive case.
She is a pretty child. (Galsworthy)
The book is my sister’s.
Adjective.
He’s awfully dear and unselfish. (Galsworthy)
Pronoun — personal, possessive, negative, interrogative, reflexive, indefinite, defining.
It was he.
The guns were his. (London)
You are nobody. (London)
Why? What is he? (Galsworthy)
But she was herself again, brushing her tears away. (Lindsay)
Word of the category of state.
He was aware all the time of the stringy tie beneath the mackin­tosh, and the frayed sleeves... (Greene)
But I’m afraid I can’t keep the man. (Galsworthy)
Numeral, cardinal or ordinal
I’m only 46. (Shaw)
Mr. Snodgrass was the first to break the astonished silence.
(Dickens)
A prepositional phrase.
The things were outside her experience. (Wells)
After all, the little chap was on the side of the Capital. (Galswor­thy)
Infinitive, infinitive phrase, or an infinitive construction.
June’s first thought was to go away. (Galsworthy)
His first act was to bolt the door on the inside. (Dickens)
The best thing is for you to move in with me. (Abrahams)
Participle II or very seldom Participle I; the latter is generally adjectivized.
He was surprised at the sound of his own voice. (London)
Here was change, indeed! I fell back astounded in my chair.
(Buck)
It is very distressing to me, sir, to give this information. (Dick­
ens)
The moment was soothing to his sore spirit. (Sanborn)
Adverb
That was all. It was enough the way she said it. (Sanborn)